Le débat sur les armes

The Police StatePolitical TheoryPrivate Property

Je ne souhaite pas entrer dans le débat sur les armes, l’auto défense, ou le droit que s’arroge l’état au monopole de la violence.

Etant épris de liberté et de responsabilité, je ne crois  pas à la sécurité qui vient d’en haut, je crois à la sécurité décentralisée, locale, domestique. Le Centre est incapable d’assurer la sécurité; il suffit de prêter attention aux bavures du FBI et des services français en matière de menace. Ils collectent, ils surveillent mais leur mode de fonctionnement ne leur permet pas d’intervenir efficacement, par construction. Punir les auteurs de violence et les arrêter n’est même pas dissuassif, ce n’est pas  cela assurer la sécurité. Les gouvernements ne sont jamais pro-actifs, ils sont à peine réactifs.

 

Je suis cohérent avec moi même sur cette question de la détention d’armes. Je mets souvent en avant le fait que si nous n’avions pas eu la possibilité de transférer de la monnaie et de l’argent dit « noir » lors de l’invasion allemande, nous n’aurions pas pu résister. De même si on avait désarmé tous les citoyenss lors des putschs et coups d’état , nous  vivrions sous le joug de diverses tyrannies!

Beaucoup de naifs ne connaissent rien à l’histoire, en particulier ces malheureux des écoles américaines; ils savent à peine que le monde existe en dehors de la télé et de leur téléphone portable. Ils croient que jamais rien ne justiriera qu’ils aient le droit et la possibilité de se défendre. Il suffirait de quelques vrais reportages honnêtes non truqués dans tous ces pays en guerre civile pour leur faire comprendre le contraire.

La guerre ce ne sont pas les drones et les écrans, la guerre c’est le sang , les larmes, la violence, les atrocités.  Et pour résister à la violence il faut avoir accés à des armes.

Hitler a commencé par désarmer les juifs, on en parle peu. En passant je vous avoue que je pratique le devoir de mémoire, mais le devoir de mémoire complet, pas le devoir hémiplégique: dans ce devoir de mémoire, les Allemands ont toute leur place.  C’est dire que le devoir de mémoire doit faire craindre les Allemands et en même temps avoir de la compassion pour les juifs. Dans le devoir de mémoire actuel on « oublie » les auteurs des massacres, comme si ils étaient tombés du ciel. Je pense qu’il faut sans cesse rappeler que les atrocités ont été commises par des hommes en chair et en os  et qu’il faut s’en souvenir.  Et le rappeler sans cesse, c’est un bon moyen de comprendre que l’homme n’est pas ce que l’on croit, bon, respectable,  civilisé, non l’homme est un loup pour l’homme, surtout lorsqu’il est en foule. ET tout le reste ce sont des mythes pour faire de vous des moutons.

Le débat sur les armes est un débat important dans la question de la féminisation en cours de nos sociétés.

Tiens à propos je vous recommande d’aller faire un tour chez

http://www.dedefensa.org/

et d’y lire le dernier papier du Monde d’Orlov. N’ayez pas peur, le machisme n’est pas contagieux!

Je suis de ceux qui pensent que les gouvernements doivent craindre les citoyens et non l’inverse!

02/21/2018

There is no epidemic of gun violence in America; quite the opposite in fact. But last week’s shooting at a high school in Florida was a grim and jarring reminder of deep cultural problems lurking just beneath the veneer of our materially comfortable society. Those problems are beyond the scope of libertarianism per se, but again we see that greater liberty will require a renaissance in civil society: nihilism and hopelessness among any segment of the population is far more dangerous than “assault rifles.” The less we are governed internally, the more we invite external governance from the state.1

Millions of guns already exist everywhere in American households, so enacting laws “like Europe” won’t work. Voluntary turnovers of guns to police won’t even scratch the surface, much less entice criminals. Involuntary confiscation is both a political and practical nonstarter.

There are no top-down political solutions available from Washington. Gun control doesn’t actually prevent crime, but it does provide the political class and media with another diversionary bitter cultural debate. Americans are deeply divided on guns, just as they are deeply divided on abortion and climate change and scores of other issues. And why should we expect otherwise, in a far-flung country of 320 million people with wildly diverse geographies, economies, and cultures?

Real federalism, long abandoned by progressives and conservatives alike, is one approach with the potential to reduce political conflicts over guns. Manhattan and Montana might have different perspectives here, and both can manage things without Congress. Contrary to popular belief, the Second Amendment neither “federalized” gun laws nor created a right to private ownership of firearms. It simply enshrined the notion that “the people” need to be armed to defend themselves potentially against the state itself.

We don’t need a constitution to recognize all humans have an innate and pre-existing right to self-defense. To make that right effective (especially for weaker members of society) tools must be employed. Guns are simply those tools, inanimate objects that cannot be imbued with innate qualities of good or evil. The right to own guns flows naturally from self-ownership of our bodies.

The libertarian response to mass shootings, in particular school shootings, is to allow teachers and other personnel to carry weapons on campus. In fact, the broader libertarian program is to have most people armed, or at least potentially armed, to create a safer (not to mention more polite) society. If we cannot snap our fingers and produce crime-free cities and neighborhoods where nobody needs to carry a gun, then at least we allow everyone the ability to dissuade or defend against criminal shooters.

This is all well and good, but ignores the market impulse to outsource services to specialists. This is why neighborhoods hire private security patrols, and why celebrities hire professional bodyguards. Not everyone wants to carry a gun or train themselves in gun proficiency. And there is the issue of scale, where individuals might find themselves arrayed against organized criminal gangs.

Rather than endlessly debate the fraught political process of crafting illiberal gun control laws, we ought to think about private-market solutions that focus on controlling crime. We should think in terms of market economics, where private property and correct incentives give us what government and laws cannot: a mechanism to determine possible harms and the cost of protecting against or preventing those harms. People want safe neighborhoods and schools, which is just another way to say there is a market for them.

Generally speaking, the US legal system imposes premises liability on property owners whose negligence (or willful conduct) results in someone getting injured on that property. This arose conceptually through common law courts and juries applying general negligence concepts,

We accord different degrees of legal responsibility (“duty”) to landowners based on the identity of the injured party: a trespasser, for example, has less recourse to sue for injury than a business invitee (i.e., a customer). The law considers whether the injured party had a legitimate purpose being there, and in some cases whether they contributed to their injury through their own negligence.

The duty to make one’s property safe from a particular harm relates to, and in a sense hinges on, the foreseeability of that harm. Leaving spilled milk in a grocery aisle too long could well subject the owner to paying damages for a shopper who suffers a fall — a fall that was quite predictable and clearly caused by the wet floor. But intentional criminal acts by a third party, much like acts of God, generally absolve the property owner of liability. After all, no shooter ever entered the grocery before, so why must the owner guard against this most unlikely event?

But should a public school district have a higher duty to keep students safe than the grocer has for shoppers? Arguably yes, in that society values children’s lives, well-being, and innocence perhaps more than adults. And we force children into school attendance via truancy laws and meddling protective services agencies.

Furthermore, are school shootings now foreseeable even though they remain exceedingly rare? Does the media attention and notoriety given to such shootings change the calculus? At some point, perhaps today, school shootings could become foreseeable in the eyes of a jury.

We can’t necessarily draw conclusions here, but the question is whether the owners of public schools — generally municipal or county school districts — should be immune from lawsuits for school shootings simply because they are political subdivisions of states? Should sovereign immunity apply to them, or should they be forced to consider security measures just as private owners must? After all, it seems clear that a mass shooting at a prestigious private school would result in litigation.

It seems clear that imposing tort liability on school owners and operators, even government owners, would both improve security and provide a ready source of compensation for the families of victims. Private security agencies, which have a market reputation to develop or protect, almost certainly would provide more efficient service than government police — for the simple reason that more crime punishes their bottom line, while it often creates calls for increased police budgets. And private security models like Disneyland benefit from wanting to create a peaceful and happy environment, where security forces have every incentive not to escalate situations or incur liability.

Furthermore, private insurance models could help schools rationally allocate funds relative to the risks involved. Since school shootings are rare, premiums to cover such an event should be constrained. But other lesser types of crime in schools could be insured against as well, helping administrators better understand what they’re up against. And insurance companies would bend over backward to offer advice on avoiding shootings, since they would bear the cost of liability payments.

Admittedly, public schools using taxpayer funds to hire private security and pay insurance premiums muddies the waters. But at least it moves all of the parties involved — school districts, administrators, teachers, security providers, and parents — toward a market-based approach to safer schools. Tort liability, however imperfectly administered by government courts, offers one way to align the interests of parents and school owners in preventing further horrific events.

A rational system of private security and criminal control would focus on market solutions that actually reduce crime generally and provide meaningful compensation to victims. In other words, it would focus on prevention and restitution. The marketplace can provide both far better than the state, with its amorphous and broken system of criminal justice and mass incarceration — paid for by the taxpayers it claims to represent as “the people” in criminal cases.

  • 1.Surprisingly, the late Murray Rothbard did not write as copiously on guns or gun culture as he did on many subjects. In For a New Liberty he attacks gun control both conceptually and empirically, characterizing it as a snobbish impulse for those fortunate enough to live in safe areas and wealthy enough not to worry much about the loss of property (such as losing their wallet in a mugging or having their car stolen). And in Making Economic Sense he decries a Clinton-era proposal to radically increase federal permit fees for gun dealers.

Jeff Deist is president of the Mises Institute. He previously worked as chief of staff to Congressman Ron Paul, and as an attorney for private equity clients. Contact: email; twitter.

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2 réflexions sur “Le débat sur les armes

  1. Pour ma part c’est simple; il n’y a pas de démocratie sans autorisation de détenir une arme car le 1er des droits de l’homme est celui de se défendre et celui de défendre sa famille. Comme le disent certains américains « j’ai vu un film dans lequel seul le gouvernement avait le droit de détenir des armes, c’est la Liste de Schindler ». Tous les gouvernements veulent voir la population désarmée : « j’assurerai votre sécurité » disent-ils. M. Rothbard prend un très bon exemple dans son Ethique de la Liberté : celui de naufragés qui arrivent sur une île et qui récupèrent des armes échouées. Le soir se tient une réunion. Un membre du groupe dit alors : « l’homme est un loup pour l’homme, si nous détenons tous des armes nous allons finir par nous entretuer; je vous propose de me les confier et j’assurerai votre sécurité ». Mais là une personne plus sensée ou méfiante que les autres s’exclame : « mais qui nous protègera de toi lorsque tu auras toutes nos armes ? ». C’est l’esprit du droit américain issu du 2nd amendement.

    J'aime

  2. Bien entendu que la gauche américaine veut désarmer les américains et pour cela leur médiats totalitaires de gauche tout comme en France passant leur temps à faire de la propagande utilisent l’émotionnel sans pour autant avoir la moindre analyse pour ne montrer que certaines images et commentaires bien choisis pour focaliser l’esprit des gens sur ce qu’ils veulent. On remarquera qu’il n’est jamais fait allusion à l’état mental du tireur, ni des suicides par armes à feu ni des gangs de voyous ni des personnes agressées ou cambriolées qui on défendu leur peau.

    J'aime

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